Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view? - Иностранные языки - Скачать бесплатно
Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a
contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from
my point of view?
I. The introduction
II. Pollution of Moscow environment
1. Air pollution.
2. Condition of flora and fauna.
3. Thermal pollution.
III. Condition of health of the Moscow citizen.
IV. Processing of waste products
V. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology
can be solved?
We are living in the century of the technological progress trying to open
all new and unknown, each day brings us new ideas, each month brings us
new technological solutions, people go strait in development new invents
and do not look back, do not stop, do not think of the act… All they
think about is making their life more convenient for them self. That is
why the have forgotten one of the most valuable things– the environment.
You see we are living in the symbiosis with nature and we strongly depend
on it. I will try to tell in my research work about its problems in my
native city Moscow.
It was founded in1147by Jury Dolgoruky. During its history it was roughly
all developed, and became more beautiful. Now it is one of the largest
cities in the world with the population more than 9’000’000 of people. It
is obvious, that in Moscow there are environmental problems as
radioactive pollution, toxic pollution, air pollution,… just like in
other cities. In my research work I shall try to meet you with the
ecology of Moscow. And I will also tell you my point of view on it.
All figures and data given in my work present as it was taken from the
official site of Moscow administration.
Pollution of Moscow environment.
1 Air pollution.
The main problem of Moscow is the pollution of air. Each year atmosphere
gets 1.8 million tons of harmful substances 90% from them is due to motor
transport, and it is very clean because in my native city 35% of
automobiles are more than 10 years old. There motors have fulfilled there
term. 94% of all machines are not equipped with special filters to
protect environment from harmful gases.
The number of automobiles in Moscow is growing from year to year, and
ecologists predict that in some years it will plunge in smoke. Whether
there is an exit from this situation?
The Moscow government has developed the new program. According to it in
Moscow new roads and high ways will be constricted. It should solve the
problem of transport circulation. On public transport there will be
filters putted. And we will come to euro-1 euro-2 standards. It is also
planned to develop the electric transport like monorail trains. In
November of 2000 year the program “Strategy of struggle against motor
transport emissions in Moscow” was accepted by Moscow government. But of
course the process will not pass quickly.
2 Condition of flora and fauna.
A major component of urban terrain is the green massive (parks, urban
forests and gardens), birds and animals inhabiting them. The greenery as
well as the environmental system, provide comfort of living conditions
for people in the city, adjusts to definite limits the gas composition of
air and the degree of its pollution, climatic characteristics of urban
territories, reduces the influence of noise factor and is a source of
In the territory of Moscow there are not less than 36 wood missives. The
largest woods massive of Moscow are Лосиный остров – in the city limits,
Узкое and Измайлово. In old part of the city, within the boundaries of
the Moscow Circular rail road, kept only two relevantly large woods
massive: Сокольники and Останкино. The condition of forests as a whole
can be described as loosened, that first of all determined by the site of
the city limits and, accordingly, level of techno genetic loads.
Kept within the Moscow boundary other natural components (moors and
rivers) are also in a bad condition, as well as forests they have
undergone definite changes as a result of effect of the complex of
anthropogenic factors and have lost those or divers qualities and
properties, characteristic for natural eco system. These natural
components more than woods are subjecting to threat to a full degradation
because of their unattended development.
The city of Moscow includes green plantations parks (urban specialized),
districts and children’s parks, squares and boulevard. The gardening of
the streets takes the special place in improvement of an ecological
condition of the city. The green plantations should execute one more
function protection of terrains of a housing estate against a transport
Since 1961 from a structure of a fauna of Moscow 23 kinds have vanished,
first of all, by availability in borders of the city large forests and
park of missives, bound with forests and parks by a protective belt.
The analysis of thermal anomalies has shown, that the areas with positive
highly and medium contrast by thermal anomalies (temperature rise above
background more than 10єC) are connected to industrial objects and
intensive thermal outflow from underground of the water carrying
Out come of outflow of ardent water from underground water carryings of
the communications, in particular, is the change of a temperature
schedule of underground waters.
Condition of health of the Moscow citizen.
The ecological analyses have shown that 80% of illnesses have arisen in a
result of the bad ecological situation in Moscow. Now days in big cities
oncology death rate in age grade 40 years; maximum rating the rate of
mortality gains in an age-grade of 80-90 years, the oncology death rate
of men in age after 45 years exceeds death rate of the women in the same
group in 2 times.
The most unfavorable situation in the city on a children’s morbidity was
added up in central, Eastern, Northwest and Зеленоградском district. The
high level of illnesses of respiratory organs is also reiterated there.
Processing of waste products.
An important problem of a big city is the recycling of waste. Who enjoy
living in dump? This problem recently began to get huge values because
the development of his industry is accompanied by growth of industrial
wastes, and it is not possible to dump all waste products in one big
heap, that is why this problem has to be solved somehow.
For that in Moscow special factories were built. For example in 1998,
factories on processing dust was advanced 423’000 tons of waste products,
buried 980’000 tons of waste products. For processing waste we use
advanced technologies. The new factory in Чертаново and Котляково is
constructed, these factories can process on 40’000 tons per one year, the
factory in Рудникого is constructed, but the level of the processed waste
is still very low. For example in 1998 at factories it was advanced 6% of
waste products, 35%
were buried. Others sent to dumps of the Moscow area. In 1998 it was
liquidated 13’000 cases of illegal dumps of the Moscow area.
As for me I can see that more and more factories are built and we are not
going to sink in a heap of waste products.
How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be
My survey research claimed that 100% of Moscow citizen want there streets
to be cleaned, but only 29.8% of them are ready to pay more taxes to deal
with the problem. Next problem is that every third person in the street
will through away different kind of liter just in the street for
different reasons. From that fact the conclusion is that we should not
only think of cleaned streets, we must work on saving them cleaned. That
is what we must teach our children if we are not going to live like pigs.
The next kind of pollution that we can easily feel on our self is the air
It is not a new for any one that cars, which all we like, are the main
cause for it.
Some people say that we should better use bicycles, not to pollute the
environment; I advise them to live in caves with out electricity and
other technological conveniences, to protect the environment. But there
are much more useful ideas of saving our planet and there is one thing
which sums them up: - The main idea is that technology must help us to
protect the environment which has already suffered from it. From that
idea recycling factories were maid, different filters invented, people
even started to invent alternative kinds of fuel, which are nearly harm
less to the planet, and at least we think so at the moment. There are
even cars maid, which are working on new fuel elements, this is how we
have called these kind of fuel.
Surely we will not be able to use these cars tomorrow and even in the
next 10 years, that is why our government must continue working on
pollution problems in our country at real time, and we will have to come
to euro-3 standard. We must also use special filters in our cars and
other last developments in this area.
What do you think must be done to make the ecological situation of Moscow
better? That is the question which was told to people on line.
(24 – 25march) 2004.
| |Total number of people voted : 7178
|::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: |To get the plants and factories out of the
| |city- 2439 (36%)
|::::::::::::::::::::::::: |There must be much more green plants in the
| |city- 1788 (24%)
|:::::::::::::::::::: |The traffic must be limited- 1463 (20%)
|::::::::::::: |We can do nothing already- 939 (13%)
|:::::::: |I do not know- 549 (7%)
Big thanks to the RosBusinessConsulting by which the pool was maid it’s
I think that it shows that 80% of Moscow citizen are interested in making
our environment cleaner and that the main things they are interested is
the air pollution which was produced by the plants and factories out of
It shoes that people sees the problem, but as I have already sad they do
nothing to solve It, that is why there must be strict government control
on the pollution in big cities like Moscow, government must also think of
the recycling of the waste products, and of course much more strict
ecological laws must be maid. There must be even Special Forces made to
control the pollution in the streets and all these must be not on paper,
but in the air we breathe, water we drink, and in the streets we are all
Our planet needs us as well as we need our planet.
THE LIST OF USED MATERIALS.