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2. Category of Number of the Noun.
Regular – one.
Plural – more than one.
Regular Plurals:
1. Nouns ending in vowels & voiced consonants - -s(bee-bees, dog-dogs, [z])
2. Voiceless consonants - -s(book-books, [s])
3. –s,-sh,-ss,-ch,-x,-z - -es (actress-actresses, [iz])
4. –o: -es-hero-heroes. But:
after a vowel – bamboos, embryos, folios, kangaroos, radios, studios, zoos.
In proper names – Romeos, Eskimos, Filipinos.
In abbreviations -  kilos, photos, pros(professional).
Also: pianos, concertos, dynamos, quartos, solos,tangos, tobaccos.
In other cases the spelling is  -oes (tomatoes, echoes,  Negroes,  potatoes,
vetoes, torpedoes, embargoes)
–oes/-os : cargo(e)s, banjo(e)s, halo(e)s
5. Consonant+y  - -ies (sky-skies). But:
After vowels, except nouns ending –quy(day-days, soliloquy-soliloquies)
In proper names: the two Germanys, the Kennedys, the Gatsbys
In compounds: stand-bys, lay-bys.
Penny:  pence-the British currency(денежная сумма),  pennies-for  individual
6. –f(e)
–ves: wife-wives, life-lives, leaf-leaves, knife-knives, wolf-wolves,  calf-
calves, half-halves, loaf-loaves, self-selves, shelf-shelves.
–s: other nouns(proof-proofs, chief-chefs, safe-safes,  cliff-cliffs,  gulf-
gulfs, dwarf-dwarfs, reef-reefs, grief-griefs
–ves/-s:  scarf-scarfs/scarves, dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves, hoof-hoofs/hooves.
7. –th - -ths (mouth-mouths)
8. in abbreviations - -s(M.P.-M.P.s) But: Ms(manuscript)-MSS,  p.(page)-pp.,
Irregular Plurals.
1. By vowel change (Man-men,  woman-women,  tooth-teeth,  foot-feet,  goose-
   geese, mouse-mice, louse-lice).
2. –en (ox-oxen, child-children)
3. Identical
(sheep-sheep,  swine-swine(свинья),   deer-deer,   grouse-grouse(куропатка).
But: 2 variants: fish-fish/fishes, pike-pile/pikes,   trout-trout(s),  carp-
carp(s), salmon-salmon(s). The zero plural is more common to denote  hunting
quarries. (We caught  a  few  fish,  five  salmon);  the  regular  plural  –
different individuals, species.
Nationality nouns in –ese,  -ss:  Chinese,  Swiss.  And:  Englishmen  =  the
English, Dutchmen = the Dutch.
Latin  &  French  nouns:  series-series(ряд,  серия),   species-species(вид,
порода, род), corps [ko:]-corps[ko:z] (корпус, род войск).
Pair, couple, dozen, score(20), stone(6,35 kg), head  (поголовье):  2  dozen
of children, dozens of children.
Loans of Greek origin -(-is -  -es:  basis-bases,  crisis-crises,  analysis,
thesis, parenthesis, axis[вал, ось, шпендель], hypothesis, diagnosis; -on  –
a: criterion – criteria, phenomenon, -a – ata: miasma-miasmata)
Loans of Latin origin (-us -  -i,  -ora,  -era:  stimulus-stimuli,  nucleus-
nuclei[ядро],radius-radii[тело],  genus-genera[род];  -a  -  -ae:   formula-
formulae(formulas),  antenna,   vertebra[позвонок];   -um   -   -a:   datum-
data[данная  величина],  stratum-strata[описка],   erratum-errata[опечаток];
-es,-ix - -ices, -es: index-indices(indexes), appendix, matrix)
Other loan nouns  (-ean - -eaux: tableau-tableaux, bureau; -o -  -i:  tempo-
2  variants  (memorandum  –memoranda,   memorandums,   curriculum-curricula,
curriculums[курс    обучения],    formula-formulae,    formulas,     cherub-
cherubim[херувим], cherubs, focus-foci, focuses)
Different  meaning  index-indexes-list  of  contents  of   books,   indices-
показатель; genius-geniuses-men of talent, genii-духи, домовые)

Plural in compound nouns
1. The 2nd component takes the plural form as  a  rule  (housewives,  tooth-
2. –ful – at the end of the word(handfuls, spoonfuls)
3. man & woman –the 1st components(men-servants, women-docters)
4. ending –man – men(policeman-policemn) But:Germans, Romans(not compounds)
5. prepositional noun phrase where the  preposition  is  a  linking  element
   only –  the  1st  noun  takes  the  plural  form(editors-in-chief-главный
   редактор, mothers-in-law, commanders-in-chiefs-главнокомандующий,  coats-
   of-mail-кольчуга, men-of-war-военный корабль)
6. compounds = conjunction as a linking element – the  plural  is  taken  by
   the 2nd noun (gin-and-tonics)
7.     compound=noun+preposition/adverb/adjective-the      1st      element-
   plural(passers-by,   lookers-on-зритель,   courts-material-военно-полевой
   суд, attorneys-general-министр юстиции)
8. when the compound is a substantivized  phrase  which  doesn’t  contain  a
   noun,  the  last  element  –plural(forget-me-nots-незабудка,  breakdowns-
   поломка, stand-bys-запасной, grown-ups, close-ups-крупный план, pick-ups-
   случайные знакомства, drop-outs-дезертир, go-betweens-посредник)
Invariable nouns(can’t change their number)
Singular invariable nouns
1. Non-count
Material(tea, sugar) But:cheeses-kind of cheese
Abstract-music, anger
2. Proper nouns The Thames, Henry
3. Some ening-s
news(10   o’clock   news),   means-by    this    means(этими    средствами),
diseases(mumps-свинка, measles-корь, rickets-рахит, shingles-краснуха)
games(billiards, bowls-гольф, dominoes, draughts)
some proper nouns(Algiers, Athens, Brussels, Flanders,  Marseilles,  Naples,
Wales, The United Nations, the United States.
Nouns ending –ics(classics, phonetics)
Plural invariable nouns
1. Marked
Names of tools…consisting 2 equal parts(bellows-мехи, binoculars,  breeches-
бриджи, braces-фигурные скобки, flannels-фланелевые брюки,  glasses,  pants-
брюки, трусы, pincers-щепцы, pliers-щипчики, плоскогубцы,  pyjamas,  scales,
scissors,  shorts,  spectacles-очки,  suspenders-подтяжки,  tights-колготки,
tongs-щипцы, trousers, tweezers-пинцет)
Miscellaneous nouns(смешанный) (annals, antics, archives, arms,  ashes,  the
Commons, contents, customs, customs-duty,  customs-house,  earnings,  goods,
goods  train,  greens,  holidays,  manners,  minutes,  outskirts,  quarters,
stairs, suds, surroundings, thanks, troops, wages, whereabouts,  the  Middle
Some proper nouns (the East Indies,  the  West  Indies,  the  Hibrides,  the
Highlands, the Midlands, the Netherlands)
2. Unmarked(nouns of multitude & collective):
C: the family was large, m: the family were fond of their house.
Ways of showing partition
A piece of, a loaf of, a stick of, a  bar  of,  a  sheet  of,  lump,  blade,
block, strip, grain, pile, heap, word, item, article, fit

2. Category of Case of the noun

Shows the relation of the noun with other words in the sentence
Common case-zero inflexion
Genitive case-apostrophe s(‘s)
1. Genitive
[z]-after vowels & voiced consonans-negro’s, dog’s
[s]-after voiceless consonants-student’s
[iz]-after sibilants(свистящий)- prince’s, judge’s; Marx’s ideas
zero ending-girls’, boys’
with regular plural nouns(boys’)
greek nouns in –s(Socrates’ wife, Xerxes’(зерксис)
other names: 2 variants – Burns’ & Burns’s poems
Compound  nouns-s  joined  to  the  final  component(the  editor-in  chief’s
Group genitive(when ‘s can be joined)
1. 2 persons possess or are related to smth they have in common(mom &  dad’s
   room, John & Mary’s car)
2. to a more extensive phrase which may even contain a  clause(the  Duke  of
   Norfolk’s  sister,  the  secretary  of  state’s  room,  the  man  I   saw
   yesterday’s son)
3. to a noun(pronoun)+a pronoun group(someone else’s benefit)
4. to a group ending in a numeral(in an hour or two’s time)
The main meaning of the  genitive  case-possession,  Possessive  case,  main
1. the idea of belonging: John’s coat
2. Different kinds of relations:
Relation of the whole to its part(Jon’s leg)
Personal or social relations(John’s wife)
3. subjective relations(The doctor’s arrival, the Chekhov’s book)
4. authorship(Byron’s poem)
5. objective relations(John’s arrest-he was arrested)
6. measure(an hour’s trip, a mile’s distance)
‘s lost the meaning of possession  (woman’s  work,  idiot’s  smile,  women’s
college, angel’s eyes)

The use of genitive case & its equivalent of-phrase

with nouns denoting persons &  animals(John’s  idea,  swalow’s  nest).  With
other nouns-of+noun phrase
with nouns denoting time & distance(minute, moment,  year  &  substantivized
adverbs  -  today)today’s   papers-сегодняшние,   the   papers   of   today-
сегодняшнего дня)
with the names of countries  &  towns(Britain’s  national  museum,  Canada’s
with   the   names   of   newspapers    denoting    different    kinds    of
organizations(company’s plan, Guardian’s  analysis,  Geographical  Society’s
gold medal)
with the nouns world, nation, country, city, town(the nation’s health)
with the nouns ship, boat, car(ship’s crew)
with nouns denoting planets(sun, moon, earth)(this earth’s life)
set expressions: to one heart’s content(desire), at death’s door,  at  arm’s
length, out of harm’s way, a hair’s breadth, a needle’s eye,  at  a  stone’s
throe, to move at a snail’s pace, at the water’s edge
The syntactical function of the genitive –attribute. It’s always used  as  a
premodifier & sometimes called the depend genitive.
The absolute genitive – when the  genitive  case  is  not  followed  by  the
headword & when it stands for the whole noun phrase:
It is used:
to avoid repetition(our house is better than Mary’s(house))
after the preposition of(an old frend of my mother’s)
to denote shops(the grocer’s, the baker’s)
saints’ nameSt Paul’s(cathedral)
places of residence(at my uncle’s, at Timothy’s)

Double genitive

My mother’s father’s people
The boy’s half-hour’s run


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