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Министерство  образования Российской Федерации

                         Южный институт менеджмента

                                                  Кафедра иностранных языков


               На тему: How to make career in hotel industry.

                                                 Выполнила студентка, 2 курс
                                                               Косова Тамара

                                                Руководитель: Хохлова Лариса


                               Краснодар 2003



     I. The hotel complex as an object of the management
        1. The main services of the hotel.
        2. Classification of the hotels.
        3. The peculiarites of the hotel service.

    II. The structure of the management in the lodging industry.

   III. The main methods of the management of the hospitality business.

    IV. The manager’s role in the lodging industry. Manager’s functions and

     V. Decision-making – key of manager career.

    VI. The role of the communication in the manager’s career.

   VII. The management of time.

  VIII. Where one can begin the manager’s career.

    IX. Conclusion.

      I. Our society is made up of  all  kinds  of  organizations,  such  as
companies, government,  departments,  unions,  hospitals,  schools  and  the
like. They are essential to our existence, helping to  create  our  standard
of living and our quality of life. In all  these  organizations,  there  are
people carrying out the work of a  manager.  The  role  of  the  manager  is
particularly significant in such social sphere as the lodging industry.

         The lodging industry is the most important element  of  the  social
sphere. It plays the leading part in the increase of the  public  production
and accordingly in the uplifting of living standards.

      II.  One can designate the hotel as an enterprise rendering service to
the people, which are out of doors. The  service  of  the  placing  and  the
nourishment is the leading one at the hotel.

      1)  The hotel apartments are the basic element of the placing service.
They are intended for  the  rest,  sleeping  and  work  of  the  guests.  In
additional the placing service includes the service, which is  done  by  the
personal of the hotel. These are reception and official registration of  the
guests, cleaning the rooms and others.
      The nourishment consists of different processes:
         . process of production (preparation of dishes),
         . trade process (sale of the food products),
         . service process  (service of the guests by the  waiters  at  the
           restaurant, in the rooms).
      The additional service includes swimming-pools, conference halls, hair-
dresser’s, massage-room and many other things. The  hotel  is  distinguished
by the additional service among other hotels.
      Therefore this service  is  very  important  by  the  forming  of  the
attractiveness of the hotel.
      Among the main services of the hotel  one  can  also  distinguish  the
reserving the place, the facilities, the receiving and the  service  of  the
exploitation of the apartment fund.
      2) The service  of  the  nourishment,  the  placing  service  and  the
additional service are formed different  at  the  hotels.  And  so  one  can
designate several types of the hotels.
        The first class hotels are usually situated in  the  center  of  the
city. The skilled staff ensures the high level of the service.  The  clients
of this kind of the hotel are businessmen, participants of  the  conferences
and other rich men.
      The health-resort hotel is situated in the health-resort  country.  It
includes the medical service and the dietary nourishment.
      The motel is located near the motor roads  and  in  the  suburbs.  The
clients of the motel are tourists, particularly motor tourers.
      The middle class hotels render the broad service. The prizes depend on
the situation of the  hotel.  The  leading  types  of  the  hotels  are  the
business and health-resort ones, because 50% of the journeys are  made  with
business purpose, and holiday are treatment purpose determines  40%  of  the
         The hotels are classified by the level of the comfort, the capacity
of the hotel, the purpose of the hotel, the  situation  of  the  hotel,  the
duration of the work, the providing with the nourishment,  the  duration  of
the stay at the hotel, the level of the prices.
      3) The peculiarities of the hotel service are:
   1)  The  processes  of  the  production  and  the  consumption  are   not
      synchronous. This means that several kinds of service do  not  connect
      with the presence of the client (cleaning the rooms).
   2) Limited possibility of the keeping.
   3) Urgency of the service. The problem concerning  the  service  must  be
      solved very quickly. The urgency and the situation of  the  hotel  are
      the most important factors by the choice of the hotel.
   4) The broad participation  of  the  staff  in  the  production  process.
      Personal service cannot be mechanized or automated. Some  technologies
      are being instituted to speed up routine tasks, but the human  element
      is the determining one of  the  hospitality  business.  Therefore  the
      problem of the standardization is significant in the lodging industry.
      The standards of the service are worked out at many hotels.  They  are
      the rules of the service, which guarantee the level of quality of  all
      operations. These    are the time of the  official  registration,  the
      knowledge of foreign languages and  the  out-word  appearance  of  the
      personal. The work at the hotel brings the employee into contact  with
      people from all walks of life. Guests will include the wealthy and the
      poor, engaging and  obnoxious.  Each  guest  offers  the  employee  an
      opportunity learns more about human nature. Employees  not  only  have
      direct responsibility for guest service, the also have the benefit  of
      witnessing the guest’s satisfaction. The managers generally need  more
      hands-on experience before assuming managerial positions.  The  skills
      of  understanding,  motivation  and  directing  people  can  best   be
      developed through experience.
   5) Seasonal demand for the hotel service. It  has  an  influence  on  the
      loading of the hotel.
   6) Interdependency between the hotel  service  and  the  purpose  of  the
        III. The structure  of  the  management  in  the  lodging  industry
   consists of administrative secnating.
        In the lodging industry there are three types of the structure:
        1)  Lineal  structure.  Every  section  has  the  manager  who   is
   responcible for the activities of this section. This manager  submits  to
   the higher manager. The  advantages  of  this  structure  are  the  clear
   responsibility, the simplicity of the management. But the manager must be
   very skilled to manage all processes. Besides that  there  are  too  many
   contacts with the subordinamper the work of the manager.
        2) The functional structure. The main idea is that the  specialists
   perform the separate functions and they are united  in  departments.  The
   advantages of the functional structure are the  high  competence  of  the
   specialists, standardization and the programming of  the  processes.  The
   main problem of this structure is the excessive centralization.
        3) Lineal-functional. It  includes  the  special  sections  by  the
   lineal managers. Among the advantages one can account the co-operation of
   the experts and the better preparation of the decisions  and  plans.  The
   defects of this structure are the unclear responsibility and the  absence
   of the connections between departments.
           In  addition  to  the  usual  management  positions,  multi-unit
   companies may have area, district, and  regional  and/or  corporate-level
   management. There may be several  separate  departments  operating  at  a
   hotel, requiring  frequent  communication  among  staff  members  to  co-
   ordinate their activities.
          The administrative structure of the hotel depends on its purpose,
   capacity and the specific character of the guests.
        IV. Among the  main  methods  of  the  management  in  the  lodging
   industry we can number economic, administrative and social  psychological
        The leading idea of the economic method is to make such kind of the
   conditions to the staff, in which it can take into account  at  most  the
   consequences of its administrative and production activities.
         The administrative method is based on the directive  instructions.
   The main purpose of the social-psychological method is the forming of the
   positive climate in the collective. The success of the activities of  the
   manager depends in the main on his ability to work  with  people  and  on
   right using all these methods.
        V.  A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in  1916  a  classic
   definition of the manager’s role. He said that to manage is “to  forecast
   and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and  to  control.”  This
   definition is still accepted by many people today, though some writers on
   management have modified Fayol’s description. Instead  of  talking  about
   “command”, they say a manager must  “motivate”  or  “direct”  and  “lead”
   other workers.
             Henri Fayol’s definition of a manager’s functions  is  useful.
   However, in most companies, the activities of a  manager  depend  on  the
   level at which he/she is working. Top managers, such as  directors,  will
   be more involved in long planning, policy making and the relations of the
   company. These strategy decisions  are  part  of  the  planning  function
   mentioned by Fayol.
          One the other hand, middle management is help an organization  to
   run efficiently. It is urgent order or sorting out a  technical  problem.
   Managers at  this  level  spend  a  great  deal  of  time  communicating,
   coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of  their
           Managers in the lodging industry perform five basic operations.
            . Firstly, managers set  objectives.  They  decide  what  these
              should be and how the organization can achieve them. For this
              task they need analytical ability.
            .  Secondly,  managers  organize.  They  must  decide  how  the
              resources of the company are to be used, how the work  is  to
              be classified and  divided.  Furthermore,  they  must  select
              people for the jobs to be done. For this, they not only  need
              analytical ability but also understanding of human beings.
            . The third task is to motivate  and  communicate  effectively.
              They must be able to get people to work as a team, and to  be
              as productive as possible.
        To do this, they will be communicating effectively with all  levels
        of the
   organization – their superiors, colleagues and subordinates. To  succeed
   in this task, managers  need  social  skills.  The  fourth  activity  is
   measurement.  Having  set  standards,  managers  have  to  measure   the
   performance of the organization and of its staff in  relation  to  those
   standards. Measuring  requires  analytical  ability.  Finally,  managers
   develop people more productive and to grow as human  beings.  They  make
   them bigger and richer persons.
        VI.  In  carrying  out  management  functions,  such  as  planning,
   organising, motivating and controlling, a  manager  will  be  continually
   making decisions. Decision-making is a key of  management  responsibility
   and career.
          Some decisions are of the routine kind. They are decisions  which
   are made quickly. Because a manager is experienced, he knows what  to  do
   in certain situations. He does not have to think too much  before  taking
          Other decisions are often intuitive ones.  They  are  not  really
   rational. The manager may have a gut feeling that  a  certain  course  of
   action is the right one.
           Many decisions are more difficult to  make  since  they  involve
   problem-solving. Very often  they  are  strategic  decisions  which  will
   affect the future direction of the enterprise. To make good decisions the
   manager should be able to  select  rationally  a  course  of  action.  In
   practice, decisions are usually  made  in  circumstances  which  are  not
   ideal. They must be made quickly, with insufficient  information.  It  is
   probably rare that a manager can make an entirely rational decision.
          When a complex problem arises, the manager has to  collect  facts
   and weigh up courses of action. He must be systematic in dealing with the
   problem. A useful approach to this sort of decision-making is as follows:
   the process consists of four phases:
   a) Defining the problem;
   b) Analyzing and collecting information;
   c) Working out options;
   d) Deciding on the best solution.
         As a first step, the manager must identify and define the problem.
   And it is important that he does not mistake the symptoms  of  a  problem
   for the real problem he must solve. At this early stage the manager  must
   also take into account the rules and principles of the company which  may
   affect the final decision. These factors will limit the solution  of  the
          The second step  is  to  analyze  the  problem  and  decide  what
   additional information is necessary  before  a  decision  can  be  taken.
   Getting the facts is essential in decision-making.  However,  as  already
   mentioned, the manager will rarely have all the knowledge he needs.  This
   is one reason why making decisions involves a degree of risk. It  is  the
   manager’s job to minimize that risk.
          Once the problem has been defined and the  facts  collected,  the
   manager should consider the options for solving  it.  This  is  necessary
   because there  are  usually  several  ways  of  solving  a  problem.  The
   enterprise might be modernized or service might be improved, for example.
          Before making a decision, the manager will carefully  access  the
   options, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Having
   done this, he will have to take a decision.  Perhaps he  will  compromise
   using more than the option.
        VII. Communications in excellent companies are different from those
   in other  companies.  Excellent  companies  have  “open  communications”.
   People working in them keep in contact with  each  other  regularly.  The
   companies do everything possible to ensure that staff  meets  easily  and
          One problem with communication  is  that  we  do  not,  in  fact,
   communicative as effectively as we think we do.  This  is  important  for
   managers. It suggests that, when giving instructions, managers must  make
   sure  that  those  instructions  have  been  understood  and  interpreted
          A breakdown in communications is to  happen  if  there  are  some
   kinds of social distance between people. In organizations people may have
   difficulty communicating if they are  different  in  status,  or  if  one
   person has a much higher position than the other. It is risky to tell the
   truth to someone higher up in the hierarchy – they may not like what they
   hear and hold it against you.  For  this  reason  staffs  often  “filter”

        One way of reducing social distance – and improving  communications
   – is to cut down on status symbols. It is possible, for example, to  have
   a common dining-room for all staff.
          Physical surroundings and physical distance  limit  or  encourage
   communication. The  physical  layout  of  an  office  must  be  carefully
           Another  important  barrier  to   communication   is   selective
   perception. This means that people perceive things in different ways. The
   world of the sender is not the same as  the  world  of  the  receiver.  A
   manager will say something but the employee will  interpret  his  meaning
        Communication problems will arise, from time to time, in the  best-
   run companies. However, to minimize such problems, managers must remember
   one thing. Communication should be a  two-way  process.  Managers  should
   encourage staff to ask questions and to react to what  the  managers  are
   saying. The most useful question a manager can ask is “Did you understand
        VIII. In the lodging industry it is important that managers  should
   be effective. They must be able to achieve their objectives. The  problem
   is  that  there  are  so  many  pressures  on  managers,  reducing  their
   efficiency. The managers find that they do not have enough time to devote
   to the really important jobs. They find that other people take up  a  lot
   of their time, so that they have little time of their own.
            Effective managers learn how to manage their time. They cut out
   unproductive activities. They never forget that time cannot be replaced.
        Before being able to control his time, the manager  must  find  out
   how he is actually using it. He must know where it goes. The best way  to
   do this is to record how he uses time. One way of logging time is to note
   down all the activities and indicate how long they took. The manager  can
   ask questions such as:  Are some of the things I am doing  wasting  time?
   Should I be spending more time on  certain  activities?  Knowing  how  to
   spend time is an essential skill of a manager.
        IX. People entering the lodging industry frequently wonders whether
   it is better to begin their careers in  a  small  or  large  hotel.  What
   branch of hotel operation is the best to start in after graduation? Where
   you start is probably less important than how well you work  and  whether
   you make the most of opportunities. It is important  to  learn  something
   about all phases of hotel operation. You may  prefer  to  work  first  in
   those departments you know least about. Then with some  exposure  to  all
   areas, you can begin to focus on your areas of interest.
        X. We must not forget that the successful managers are  necessarily
   people who set high standards. Good managers need not  be  geniuses,  but
   must bring “character” to the job. They are people of integrity, who will
   look for that quality in others.
     1) Is the lodging industry the most important element  of  the  social
     2) Must the manager bring “character” to the job?
     3) Why is the hotel distinguished  by  the  additional  service  among
        other hotels?
     4) What main methods of the management can 

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