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   British education

   British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of individuals,
   for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling
   takes place between the agers of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at shool
   for 2 years more, to prepare for further higher education. Post shool
   education is organized flaxebly, to provide a wide range of opportunities
   for academic and vacational education and to continue studying through out

   Administration of state schools is decentralised. The department of
   education and science is responsible for national education policy, but it
   doesn't run any schools, if doesn't employ teachers, or prescribe
   corricular or textbooks. All shools are given a considerable amount of
   freedom. According to the law only one subject is compulsary. That is
   religious instruction.

   Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in nursery schools
   or in infant's classes in primary schools.

   Most pupils receive free education finenst from public fonds and the small
   proportions attend schools wholy independent. Most independent schools are
   single-sex, but the number of mixing schools is growing.

   Education within the mantained schools system usually comprises two
   stages: primary and secondary education. Primary schools are subdevided
   into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and junior schools (ages 7 - 11). Infant
   schools are informal and children are encouraged to read, write and make
   use of numbers and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all
   their work with the same class teacher exept for PT and music. The work is
   beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.

   The junior stage extence over four years. Children have set pirits of
   arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography nature study and
   others. At this stage of schooling pupils were often placed in A, B, C and
   D streams according their abilities. The most able children were put in
   the A stream, the list able in the D stream. Till reccantly most junior
   shool children had to seat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually
   consisted of an arithmetic paper and an entelligent test. According to the
   results of the exam children are sent to Grammar, Technical or Secondary
   modern schools. So called comprehansive schools began to appear after
   World War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which can provide education for
   over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given in Grammar,
   Technical and Secondary modern schools.

   By the law all children must receive full-time education between the ages
   of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a school for a further 2 or 3
   years and continue his studies in the sixth form up to the age of 18 or
   19. The course is usually subdevided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The
   corricular is narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3.

   The main examinations for secondary school pupils are general certeficate
   of education (the GCE) exam and certificate of secondary education (the
   CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at two levels: ordinary level (0 level)
   and advanced level (A level).

   Candidats set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years away. GCE level is
   usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE level exam is taken
   after 5 years of secondary education by the pupils who are of everage
   abilities of their age.

   My future profession

   What I would like to become? This question pasels me greatly. Every job
   has its elements of difficulties and interest. I think that nearly all the
   professions are very important in life. But to choose the right occupation
   is very difficult, because we must take in to consideration many factors.
   We must consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. At the same time
   we must satisfy the requirements of our society and peoples needs in one
   profession or another.

   The end of school is the beginning of an independent life, the beginning
   of a more serious examination. In order to pass that very serious exam we
   must choose the road in life which will help us best to live and work.
   Each boy and girl has every opportunity to develop mind and use knowledge
   and education received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or
   works, others want to go into construction: to take part in building power
   stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work and to satisfy at the
   same time the requirements of the society and your own personal interest
   are offered in the sfere of the services transport, communications and
   many others.

   I have a specially liking for to became a programmist. I like this
   profession because it very interest.

   Art gallereys of London

   Speaking about art gallereys of London we should first of all mention The
   national gallery, The national portret galerey and The tate gallery. I
   would like to tell you about National portret gallery and about Tate

   The national gallery houses one of the richest and most extensive
   collections of painting in the world. It stands to the north of the
   Trafalgar Square. the gallerey was desighned by William Wilkins and build
   in 1834-37. The collection covers all schools and periods of painting, but
   is a specially famous for it's examples of Rembrant and Rubents. The
   british schools is only moderately represented as the national collections
   are shared with the Tate gallerey. The National gallerey was founded in
   1824 when the government bought the collection of John Angerstein which
   included 38 paintings.

   The Tate gallery houses the national collection of british painting from
   the 16-th century to the present day. It is also the national gallerey for
   modern art, including painting and sculpture made in Britain, Europe,
   America and other countries. It was opened in 1897 as the national
   gallerey of british art. It owes it's establishment to Suie Henritate who
   built the gallerey and gave his own collection of 65 painting.

   British theatres

   Until reccently the history of the english theatre has been build around
   actors rather then companies. It has been hard to find any London theatre
   that even had a consistent policy. There are no permanent staff in British
   theatres. Apply is rehearsed for a few weeks by a company of actors
   working together mostly for the first time and it is allowed to run as
   long as it draws the odious and pays it's way.

   Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is an follows: there
   are two kinds of seats, which can be booked an advanced (bookable), and
   unbookable once have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the
   principal: first come - first served. And ancient times plays were acted
   inside churches and later on the market places.

   The first theatre in England "The Blackfries" build in 1576, and "The
   Globe" build in 1599, which is closely connected with William Shakespeare.
   Speaking about our times we should first of all mention "The English
   National theatre","The Royal Shakespeare company" and "Covent Garden".

   "Covent Garden" used to be a fashionable promenade - it was, before then,
   a convent garden - but when it became overrun with flower-sellers,
   orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people moved to more exclusive
   surroundings farther west, such as "St. Jame's Square".

   The first "Covent Garden theatre" was build in 1732. It was burnt down in
   1808 and rebuild exactly a year after. It opened in September 1809, with
   Shakespeare's "Macbeth". Since the middle of the last century "Covent
   Garden" became exclusively devoted to opera.

   Now "Covent Garden" in busier than ever, it is one of the few well-known
   opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it employs over 600 people
   both of the Opera company and the Royal Ballet.


   It took over the hundred years to establish a national theatre company.
   It's first director from 1962 was Lawrence Olivier. This is the first
   state theatre Britain has ever had. A special building for it was opened
   in 1976. It has three theatres in one: "The Oliver theatre", the biggest
   is for the main classical repertoire; "The Lyttilton", a bit smaller is
   for new writing and for visiting foreigh countries and "The Cottesloe
   theatre", the smallest is used for experimental writing and productions.
   "The Royal Shakespeare company" are devided between the country and the
   capital and it's produces plays mainly by Shakespeare and his
   contempraries when it performs is "Stratford -on-Avon", and modern plays
   in it's two auditoria in the Cities, Barbican centre.

   Moscow theatres

   For decades Moscow has had a reputation as a city of theatres. The birth
   plays of the historic "Bolshoy", "Maly" and "Moscow Art" theatres the city
   has been and steel is a centre for the development exploretary modern
   ideas in the dramatic art and is famous for it's great number of
   highlygifted, interesting directors, actors, playwrigts and artists.

   Every evening the doors of Moscow theatres open to streams of
   theatre-gowers. The best Moscow theatres devoded themselves to developing
   the principals of directing and acting laid down by Stanislavsky,
   Meerhold, Nemerovich-Danchenko, Vachtangov and others. The discoveries and
   successes of Moscow theatres today exists due to experience and triumphs
   of preceding generations.

   I'd like to tell you about the Bolshoy Theatre. The magestic building of
   the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Theatre Square in Moscow's central quater,
   not far from Kremlin. This is the leading Russian opera house with the
   best vocalists and choreographers in it's company.

   The Bolshoi traces it's history to 1776 when a standing opera company was
   organized in Moscow. The first opera shown in Bolshoi theatre was opera
   "life of tsar" (now "Ivan Susanin"). At later times operas by
   Dargomyzhsky, Serov, Tcaikovsky, Borodin, Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and
   Rubinstein were produced here.

   At the same time the Bolshoi company staged the best operas and ballets by
   West European composers-Mozart, Rossini, Weber, Verdi and others.

   The bolshoi ballet company enjoys well-deserved fame as the world's
   finest. This is equally true of it's brilliant realistic style of
   perfomance and repertoire.

   My favorite painter

   One of my favorite artists is Rembrant is the greatest Dutch master, one
   of the supreme geneuses in the history of art. To this day the art of
   Rembrant remains one of the most profound witness of the progress of the
   soul in it's earthly pilgrimage towards the realisation of higher destiny.
   The son of the prosperous miller, Rembrant was born in Leiden in 1608. He
   studied at Leiden University, but his real vocation was painting. His
   rapid sugsess promoted him to move to the Amsterdam in 1631.

   In 1632 Rembrant bought a splendid house, started a collection of
   paintings and rarities.

   The universal artist dealt with many world subjects. Rembrant created a
   number of portraits and some group portraits which were traditional to the
   Dutch art. The best of them are "Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp" and "The
   night watch".

   In 1655 Rembrant found himself in the midst of several financial troubles.
   At that period he painted "The Polish Rider", which is an allegory of the
   man's earthly journey.

   Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrant painted his famous
   "Return of the Prological son", which stands at the ultimate peak of
   Cristian spirituality, illuminating the relationship of the self to the

   The biblical theme was very important to Rembrant. He painted "Artakserks,
   Oman and Eshpir", "The Saint Family".

   Rembrant was not understood when he was alive. He died in poverty. But it
   is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes Rembrant from his Dutch
   contemporaries making him the greatest artist of the world.

   Art in Moscow

   Speaking about art gallereys of Moscow we must mention the most famous

   The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best known picture gallereys in
   Russia. It takes it's name from it's founder Pavel Tretyakov, a Moscow
   mercant. In the 19'th century Tretyakov began to collect russian
   paintings. He visitet all the exibitions and art studios and bought the
   best pictures. Little by little Tretyakov extended his interests and began
   to collect earlier Russian paintings. In 1881 Tretyakov opened in St.
   Peterburg his collection to the public, 11 years later he donated it to
   the city of Moscow. Since then the gallerey has received hundred paintings
   from other museums and private collections. The Tretyakov gallerey
   reflects the whole history of Russian paintings from 11'th century to the
   present day. The gallery contains such halls devon-ded to the works of
   18'th century painters, as Рокотов, Левитский, Боровиковский. The first
   half of the 19'th century is reprisentive by brilliant paintings by
   Брюллов, Веницианов and others. The gallery has the best collection of
   "передвиженники" , such as Кромской, Перов, and such

   great names as Суриков, Репин, Вознецов, Левитан.

   Also I'd like to tell you about state pushkin museum of fine art. The
   building was built in Greek stile by Roman Klein in 1898 - 1912 to house a
   museum of fine art, founded of initiative of professor Ivan Cvetayev.
   Since 1937 it has be known as The Puskin museum of fine art. It has one of
   the worlds largest ancient collections of european art. Now the picture
   gallerey has over 2 thousands works of various schools of painting which
   enaibous us to understand and appreciate the variaty of staills over the

   The Pushkin museum pereodically hald's exibition of the art of various
   countries and of individual outstanding artist of past and present.

   Theatres, music halls and cinemas

   Theatres are very much the same in London as anywhere else; the chief
   theatres ,music halls and cinemas are in the West End. If you are staying
   in London for a few days, you'll have no difficulty whatever in finding
   somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening. You'll find opera, balley,
   comedy, drama, revue, musical comedy and variety. Films are shown in the
   cinemas during the greatest part of the day.

   The best seats at theatres are those in the stalls, the circle and the
   upper circle. Then comes the pit, and the last of all the gallery where
   the seats are cheapest. Boxes, of course, are the most expensive. Most
   theatres and music halls have good orchestras with popular conductors.

   You ought to make a point of going to the opera at least once during the
   season if you can. There you can get the best of everything - an exellent
   orchestras, famous conductors, celebated singers and well dressed
   audience. But, of course, if you are not fond of music and singing, won't
   interest you.

   At the West End theatres you can see most of the famous English actors and
   actresses. As a rule, the plays are magnificently staged - costumes,
   dresses, scenery, everything being done of the most lavish scale. Choose a
   good play, and you'll enjoy yourself thoroughly from the moment the
   curtain goes up to the end of the last act. Get your seats beforehand,
   either at the box-office of theatre itself or at one of the agencies. When
   you go to a theatre, you'll probably want to seat as near to the stage as
   possible. But if you are at the cinema, you may prefer to seat some
   distance from the screen. In fact, I would say, the further away the

                               Music in our life

   Music - it art, reflecting validity in sound art images, one of the forms
   of public ideology. Having by powerful force direct emotional effect,
   music during of all history of man-kind plays a huge social, cultural and
   educational role.

   Leading composers are connected to progressive public movements, life,
   interests and aspirations people. Each nations differs by peculiar
   national features. Folk music, being improved by creative efforts of many
   generations of the people, reaches a high degree of art maturity. On the
   basis of riches of national music professional musical creativity of
   composers is developed. Rejection of music from advanced ideas epoch of
   national culture, national roots of art leads to it's to decline and

   Idea emotional contents of music is passed through sound art images,
   implemented in musical sounds. The basis of music is the tune. According
   to the way of performance music is devided into 2 main branches:
   instrumental and vocal.

   There are a great number of different styles of music, such as Jazz, Pop,
   Rock, Classic; and new musical directions. One of the new music directions
   is Rave. I prefer to listen hard-core and more quiet music such as Roxette
   and others.

   Now days the number of music styles is growing, and every young people,
   which are fond of music can easily choose that style which appeals to

                              The use of computers

   Just as television has extended human sight across a barriers of time and
   distance, so the computers extend the power of the human mind across the
   existing barriers.

                             Computers in medicine

   Computers are one of the great importance in modern hospital. The chief
   use of computers is the storing and sorting the medical knowledge which
   has been equired in the last 50 years. No doctor can possible keep up with
   all discoveries. The only solution of the problem is store medical
   knowledge in a computer. Today there are medical computer centers were all
   existing knowledge of simpthoms of various dessieses and of their
   treatment is stored. Doctors feed data on simpthoms in the computer and
   get the nessesary information on current diagnostics and treatment.

                          Computers that can be learn

   Ordinary computer can remember only the data stored in the hard disk. Now
   scientists have desighned machines, that are capable of learning from
   experience and remembarary what they have learned. Such a machine is
   capable of recognising objects without human help or control. Of course,
   they made many mistakes.

   There is another similar machine which can look at letter alphabet a
   simple words and they “say” thought a loudes speaker what it has seen. The
   machine has as thoughtarn learning power.

                            Computers at the school

   Information science with the ideas and message of processing and storing
   informations is of great importance today. That's why computer technology
   must be told in secondary school. The new subject “basic information
   science”, and “computing machine” was intreduste for the siner through the
   schools. The pupils teach computers to anlestigate school problems.
   Contact with the machine increases the interest in learning, makes them
   more serious about studing new subject. School computers are used not only
   for studing information science, but also examinations purposes. Young
   people who finish must be tried to operate computers.


                              Christopher Columbus

   300-400 years ago a great deal of the world was undiscoveried. But now
   there seems little more to explore, the wild north was conquered, the
   jungle was conquered too. And it seems that all the pages of the great
   book called “The Earth” has been filled in, but exploration still goes on.

   In the 15th century people knew only 3 continents: Europe, Asia and
   Africa. They knew nothing about America. The man who was thought to be the
   discoverier of America was born in 1451 in Italy. His name was Cristopher

   Knowing that the earth was round he desided to reach India by sailing to
   the west. It was very difficult for him to organize an expedition as
   nobody wanted to help him. At last the Spanish government gave him some
   money. In the 1492 he sailed with 3 small ships in to the Atlantic ocean.
   They had been sailing for more than 2 months and at last they saw land.
   Columbus was certain that the lands he discoveried were part of India and
   he called these islands “The West Indias”. He made 3 voyagers to America.
   His last voyage was made in 1502-1504. After that, seriously ill, he
   remained in Spain until his death. He died believing that Cuba was part of
   Asia. Colum-buse's voyagers gave Europe first important knowledge of the
   new world. Many places have been named in his honour. America however was
   named after another explorer Amerigo Vespucci.

   Americus Vespucius (or Amerigo Vespucci, as the name is spelled in
   Italian) was born in Florence, Italy, in 1454. He was in Spain at the time
   of Columbus' first and second voyages. In a letter, written in 1504 and
   printed in 1505, he claimed to have made four voyages, on the first of
   which, in 1497, he explored the South American coast. This would make him
   the first European to land on the American continent, for at that time
   Columbus had only reached the outlying islands. Most scholars reject
   Vespucius' version of this voyage. Vespucius perhaps did accompany a
   Spanish expedition that of Alonzo de Ojeda to South America in 1499, and
   in 1501 and 1503 he probably went with Portuguese expeditions. Probably he
   never commanded an expedition himself and, of course, was not the first
   person to set foot on the continents to which his name is given. Vespucius
   died in Seville, Spain, in 1512.

                               Learning languages

   The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign
   languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the
   progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge
   and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of
   mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are needed
   as the main and most efficient means of information exchange of the people
   of our planet.
   Today English is the language of the world. Over 350 million people speak
   it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great
   Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English
   is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South
   African Republic. As a second language it is used in the former British
   and US colonies.
   It is the major international language for communication in such areas as
   science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of
   the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other
   political organization. It is the language of the literature, education,
   modern music, international tourism.
   Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning
   English for the purpose of communication is espicially urgent today.
   Learning a foreing language is not as easy thing. It is a long and slow
   process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know English is
   absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist.
   It is well known that reading books in the original , listening to the BBC
   news, communicating with the English speaking people will help a lot. When
   learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history of the
   native speakers. One must work hard to learn any foreign language.

                           LONDON, Jack (1876-1916).

   The novelist and short-story writer Jack London was, in his lifetime, one
   of the most popular authors in the world. After World War I his fame was
   eclipsed in the United States by a new generation of writers, but he
   remained popular in many other countries, especially in the Soviet Union,
   for his romantic tales of adventure mixed with elemental struggles for

   John Griffith London was born in San Francisco on Jan. 12, 1876. His
   family was poor, and he was forced to go to work early in life to support
   himself. At 17 he sailed to Japan and Siberia on a seal-hunting voyage. He
   was largely self-taught, reading voluminously in libraries and spending a
   year at the University of California. In the late 1890s he joined the gold
   rush to the Klondike. This experience gave him material for his first
   book, 'The Son of Wolf', published in 1900, and for 'Call of the Wild'
   (1903), one of his most popular stories.

   In his writing career of 17 years, London produced 50 books and many short
   stories. He wrote mostly for money, to meet ever-increasing expenses. His
   fame as a writer gave him a ready audience as a spokesman for a peculiar
   and inconsistent blend of socialism and racial superiority.

   London's works, all hastily written, are of uneven quality. The best books
   are the Klondike tales, which also include 'White Fang' (1906) and
   'Burning Daylight' (1910). His most 

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