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The Institute of Ecology, Linguistics and Low

                                 Degree work
                              «BRITISH MONARCHY
                              AND ITS INFLUENCE

                                         Dunaeva Nina

                                Moscow, 2003
   Part One

    The United kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland  4
    Direct meaning of the word «monarchy»    6
    The British constitutional monarchy      7

   Part Two

    Kings and Queens of England  9
    The Anglo-Saxon Kings   9
    The Normans  23
    The Angevins 30
    The Plantagenets  33
    The Lancastrians  42
    The Yorkists 46
    The Tudors   48
    The Stuarts  58
        The Commonwealth Interregnum   63
    The Hanoverians   75
    Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 85
    The House of Windsor    87

   Part Three

    The Queen’s role  91
    Queen’s role in the modern State   91
    Queen and Commonwealth  91
    Royal visits 92
    The Queen’s working day 92
    Ceremonies and pageantry     92
    The Queen’s ceremonial duties      93
    Royal pageantry and traditions     93
    Royal succession  93
    The Royal Household     93
    Royal Household departments  94
    Recruitment  94
    Anniversaries     95
    Royal finances    95
    Head of State expenditure 2000-01  95
    Sources of funding      96
    Financial arrangements of The Prince of Wales 96
    Finances of the other members of the Royal Family   96
    Taxation     97
    Royal assets 97
    Symbols      98
    National anthem   98
    Royal Warrants    99
    Bank notes and coinage  100
    Stamps 102
    Coats of Arms     103
    Great Seal   104
    Flags  105
    Crowns and jewels 105
    Transport    105
    Cars   106
    Carriages    107
    The Royal Train   108
    Royal air travel  109

   Part Four

    Members of the Royal Family  111
    HM The Queen 111
    HRH The Duke of Edinburgh    111
    HRH The Prince of Wales and family 112
    HRH The Duke of York    112
    TRH The Earl and Countess of Wessex      112
    HRH Princess Royal      112
    HRH Princess Alice      113
    TRH The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester   113
    TRH The Duke and Duchess of Kent   113
    TRH Prince and Princess Michael of Kent  114
    HRH Princess Alexandra  114

    Memorial Plaque
          HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother     115
          HRH The Princess Margaret    115
          Diana, Princess of Wales     115

   Part Five

    The Royal Collection    116
    About the Royal Collection   116
    The Royal Collection Trust   117
    Royal Collection Enterprises 117
    Publishing   118
    Royal Residences  118
    Royal Collection Galleries   118
    Loans  119
    The Royal Residences    119
    About the Royal Residences   119
    Buckingham Palace 120
    The Queen’s Gallery, Buckingham Palace   120
    The Royal Mews    121
    Windsor Castle    121
    Frogmore     122
    The Palace of Holyroodhouse  122
    Balmoral Castle   123
    Sandringham House 123
    St James’s Palace 124
    Kensington Palace 124
    Historic residences     124

        Bibliography  126


Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II (1952)
Government:  The  United  Kingdom   is   a   constitutional   monarchy   and
parliamentary democracy, with a queen and a Parliament that has two  houses:
the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92 hereditary  peers,  26  bishops,
and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularly elected  members.  Supreme
legislative power is vested in Parliament, which sits for five years  unless
sooner dissolved. The House of Lords was stripped of most of  its  power  in
1911, and now its main function is  to  revise  legislation.  In  Nov.  1999
hundreds of hereditary peers were expelled in an effort  to  make  the  body
more democratic. The executive power  of  the  Crown  is  exercised  by  the
cabinet, headed by the prime minister.
Prime Minister: Tony Blair (1997)
Area: 94,525 sq mi (244,820 sq km)
Population  (2003  est.):  60,094,648  (growth  rate:  0.1%);  birth   rate:
11.0/1000; infant mortality rate: 5.3/1000; density per sq mi: 636
Capital and largest city (2000 est.): London, 11,800,000 (metro. area)
Other  large  cities:  Birmingham,  1,009,100;  Leeds,   721,800;   Glasgow,
681,470;  Liverpool,  479,000;  Bradford,   477,500;   Edinburgh,   441,620;
Manchester, 434,600; Bristol, 396,600
Monetary unit: Pound sterling (Ј)
Languages: English, Welsh, Scots Gaelic
Ethnicity/race: English  81.5%;  Scottish  9.6%;  Irish  2.4%;  Welsh  1.9%;
Ulster 1.8%; West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%
Religions:  Church  of  England  (established  church),  Church   of   Wales
(disestablished),  Church  of  Scotland  (established  church—Presbyterian),
Church   of   Ireland   (disestablished),   Roman    Catholic,    Methodist,
Congregational, Baptist, Jewish
Literacy rate: 99% (1978)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2000 est.): $1.36 trillion; per  capita  $22,800.
Real growth rate: 3%. Inflation:  2.4%.  Unemployment:  5.5%.  Arable  land:
25%. Agriculture: cereals, oilseed,  potatoes,  vegetables;  cattle,  sheep,
poultry; fish. Labor force: 29.2 million (1999);  agriculture  1%,  industry
19%, services 80% (1996 est.). Industries:  machine  tools,  electric  power
equipment,   automation   equipment,   railroad   equipment,   shipbuilding,
aircraft,  motor  vehicles  and  parts,   electronics   and   communications
equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum,  paper  and  paper  products,
food processing, textiles,  clothing,  and  other  consumer  goods.  Natural
resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin,  limestone,  iron  ore,  salt,
clay, chalk, gypsum,  lead,  silica,  arable  land.  Exports:  $282  billion
(f.o.b., 2000):  manufactured  goods,  fuels,  chemicals;  food,  beverages,
tobacco.  Imports:  $324  billion  (f.o.b.,   2000):   manufactured   goods,
machinery, fuels; foodstuffs. Major trading partners: EU, U.S., Japan.
Communications: Telephones:  main  lines  in  use:  34.878  million  (1997);
mobile cellular: 13 million (yearend 1998).  Radio  broadcast  stations:  AM
219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998). Radios:  84.5  million  (1997).  Television
broadcast stations: 228 (plus 3,523  repeaters)  (1995).  Televisions:  30.5
million (1997). Internet Service  Providers  (ISPs):  245  (2000).  Internet
users: 19.47 million (2000).
Transportation: Railways: total: 16,878 km (1996). Highways: total:  371,603
km; paved: 371,603 km (including 3,303 km of  expressways);  unpaved:  0  km
(1998 est.). Waterways: 3,200 km.  Ports  and  harbors:  Aberdeen,  Belfast,
Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth, Felixstowe, Glasgow,  Grangemouth,  Hull,
Leith,  Liverpool,  London,  Manchester,  Peterhead,  Plymouth,  Portsmouth,
Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe, Tees, Tyne. Airports: 489 (2000 est.).
International disputes: Northern Ireland issue with Ireland (historic  peace
agreement signed 10 April  1998);  Gibraltar  issue  with  Spain;  Argentina
claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas);  Argentina  claims  South  Georgia
and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius and the  Seychelles  claim  Chagos
Archipelago  (UK-administered  British  Indian  Ocean  Territory);   Rockall
continental shelf dispute involving Denmark and Iceland;  territorial  claim
in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)  overlaps  Argentine  claim  and
partially overlaps  Chilean  claim;  disputes  with  Iceland,  Denmark,  and
Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM.
   Monarchy, form of government in which sovereignty is vested in  a  single
person whose right to rule is generally hereditary and who is  empowered  to
remain in office for life. The power of this sovereign  may  vary  from  the
absolute to that strongly limited by custom or  constitution.  Monarchy  has
existed since the earliest history of humankind and  was  often  established
during periods of external threat or internal crisis because it  provided  a
more efficient focus of power than aristocracy or  democracy,  which  tended
to diffuse power. Most monarchies appear to have been  elective  originally,
but dynasties early became customary. In primitive times, divine descent  of
the monarch was often claimed. Deification was  general  in  ancient  Egypt,
the Middle East, and Asia, and it was also practiced during certain  periods
in ancient Greece and Rome.  A  more  moderate  belief  arose  in  Christian
Europe in the Middle Ages; it stated that  the  monarch  was  the  appointed
agent of divine will. This was symbolized by the coronation of the  king  by
a bishop or the pope, as in the Holy Roman  Empire.  Although  theoretically
at the apex of feudal power, the medieval monarchs were  in  fact  weak  and
dependent upon the nobility for much of their power. During the  Renaissance
and after, there emerged “new monarchs” who broke the power of the  nobility
and centralized the state under their own rigid rule. Notable  examples  are
Henry VII and Henry VIII of England and Louis XIV of France.  The  16th  and
17th  cent.  mark  the  height  of  absolute  monarchy,  which   found   its
theoretical justification in the doctrine of  divine  right.  However,  even
the powerful monarchs of the 17th cent. were somewhat limited by custom  and
constitution  as  well  as  by  the   delegation   of   powers   to   strong
bureaucracies. Such limitations were also felt by the  “benevolent  despots”
of the 18th cent. Changes in intellectual climate, in the demands made  upon
government in a secular and  commercially  expanding  society,  and  in  the
social  structure,  as  the  bourgeoisie   became   increasingly   powerful,
eventually weakened the institution of  monarchy  in  Europe.  The  Glorious
Revolution  in  England  (1688)  and  the  French  Revolution  (1789)   were
important landmarks in the decline  and  limitation  of  monarchical  power.
Throughout  the  19th  cent.  Royal  power  was  increasingly   reduced   by
constitutional provisions and parliamentary incursions. In the  20th  cent.,
monarchs have generally become symbols of national unity, while  real  power
has been transferred to constitutional assemblies. Over the past  200  years
democratic self-government has been established  and  extended  to  such  an
extent that a true functioning monarchy is a rare occurrence  in  both  East
and West. Among the few remaining are Brunei,  Morocco,  and  Saudi  Arabia.
Notable constitutional monarchies include Belgium, Denmark,  Great  Britain,
Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Thailand.
   Constitutional monarchy: System of government  in  which  a  monarch  has
agreed to share power with  a  constitutionally  organized  government.  The
monarch may remain the de facto head of state or may be a purely  ceremonial
head. The constitution allocates the rest of the government's power  to  the
legislature and judiciary. Britain became a  constitutional  monarchy  under
the  Whigs;  other  constitutional  monarchies  include  Belgium,  Cambodia,
Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Thailand.
   "The British Constitutional Monarchy was the consequence of the  Glorious
Revolution of 1688, and was  enshrined  in  the  Bill  of  Rights  of  1689.
Whereby William and Mary in accepting the throne, had to consent  to  govern
'according to the statutes in parliament on."
    A monarch does not have to curry favour for votes from  any  section  of
the community.
   A monarch is almost invariably more popular than an Executive  President,
who can be elected by less than 50% of  the  electorate  and  may  therefore
represent less than  half  the  people.  In  the  1995  French  presidential
election the future President Chirac was not  the  nation's  choice  in  the
first round of voting. In Britain, governments are formed on  the  basis  of
parliamentary seats won. In  the  1992  General  Election  the  Conservative
Prime Minister took the office with only  43%  of  votes  cast  in  England,
Scotland and Wales. The Queen however, as hereditary Head of State,  remains
the representative of the whole nation.
   Elected presidents are concerned more with their  own  political  futures
and power, and as we have seen  (in  Brazil  for  example),  may  use  their
temporary tenure to enrich themselves.  Monarchs  are  not  subject  to  the
influences which corrupt short-term presidents.  A  monarch  looks  back  on
centuries of history and forward to the well  being  of  the  entire  nation
under his/her heir. Elected presidents in their nature  devote  much  energy
to undoing the achievements of their forebears in order  to  strengthen  the
position of their successors.
   A long reigning monarch can put enormous experience at  the  disposal  of
transient political leaders. Since  succeeding  her  father  in  1952  Queen
Elizabeth has had a number of Prime Ministers, the latest of whom  were  not
even in Parliament at the time of her accession. An experienced monarch  can
act as a brake on over ambitious  or  misguided  politicians,  and  encorage
others who are less confident. The reality is  often  the  converse  of  the
theory: the monarch is frequently the Prime Minister's best adviser.
   Monarchs, particularly those in Europe are  part  of  an  extended  Royal
Family,  facilitating  links  between  their  nations.  As  Burke  observed,
nations touch at their summits. A recent example of this was the  attendance
of so many members of Royal Families at the 50th birthday  celebrations  for
Sweden’s King Carl XVI Gustav. Swedish newspapers reported  that  this  this
was a much better indication of their closeness to the rest of  Europe  than
any number of treaties, protocols or directives from the European Union.
   A monarch is trained from Birth for the position of  Head  of  State  and
even where, as after the  abdication  of  Edward  VIII,  a  younger  brother
succeeds, he too has enormous experience of his country, its people and  its
government. The people know who will succeed, and  this  certainly  gives  a
nation invaluable continuity and stability. This also  explains  why  it  is
rare for an unsuitable  person  to  become  King.  There  are  no  expensive
elections as in the US where, as one pro-Monarchist American says, "we  have
to elect a new ' Royal Family' every four years." In the French  system  the
President may be a member of one party, while the  Prime  Minister  is  from
another, which only leads to confused governement. In a  monarchy  there  is
no  such  confusion,  for  the  monarch  does  not  rule  in  conflict  with
government but reigns over the whole nation.
   In ceremonial presidencies the Head of State is often a former politician
tainted  by,  and  still  in  thrall  to,  his  former  political  life  and
loyalties, or an academic or retired diplomat who can never  have  the  same
prestige as a monarch,  and  who  is  frequently  little  known  inside  the
country, and almost totally unknown outside it. For example,  ask  a  German
why is Britain's Head of State and a high proportion will know it  is  Queen
Elizabeth II. Ask a Briton, or any Non- German, who  is  Head  of  State  of
Germany? , and very few will be able to answer correctly.
   Aided by his immediate family, a monarch can carry out a range of  duties
and public engagements - ceremonial, charitable,  environmental  etc.  which
an Executive President  would  never  have  time  to  do,  and  to  which  a
ceremonial President would not add lustre.
   A monarch and members of a Royal Family can become  involved  in  a  wide
range of issues which are forbidden to politicians. All parties have  vested
interests which they cannot ignore. Vernon Bogdanor says in '  The  Monarchy
and the Constitution' - «A politician must inevitably be a spokesperson  for
only part of the nation, not the whole. A politician's motives  will  always
be suspected. Members of the Royal Family, by  contrast,  because  of  their
symbolic position, are able to speak to a much wider constituency  than  can
be commanded by even the most popular  political  leader."  In  a  Republic,
then, who is there to speak out  on  issues  where  the  'here  today,  gone
tomorrow' government is  constrained  from  criticising  its  backers,  even
though such criticism is in the national interest.
   All nations are made up of families,  and  it's  natural  that  a  family
should be at a nation's head.
   While the question of Divine Right is  now  obsolescent,  the  fact  that
"there's  such  divinity  doth  hedge  a  King"  remains  true,  and  it  is
interesting to note that even today Kings are able to play  a  role  in  the
spiritual life of a nation which presidents seem unable to fulfil.
   It has been  demonstrated  that,  even  ignoring  the  enormous  cost  of
presidential elections, a monarch as head of  state  is  no  more  expensive
than a president. In Britain many costs, such as the  upkeep  of  the  Royal
residencies, are erroneosly thought  to  be  uniquely  attributable  to  the
monarchy, even though the  preservation  of  our  heritage  would  still  be
undertaken if the county were a republic! The US government  has  criticised
the cost to the Brazilian people of maintaining their president.
   Even Royal Families which are not reigning are dedicated to  the  service
of their people, and continue to be regarded as the symbol of  the  nation's
continuity. Prominent examples are H.R.H. the Duke of Braganza  in  Portugal
and H.R.H. the County of Paris in France. Royal Families forced to  live  in
exile, such as the Yugoslav and Romanian, are often promoters  of  charities
formed to help their countries.

                         KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND
   The history of the English Crown up to the Union of the Crowns in 1603 is
long and varied. The concept of a single  ruler  unifying  different  tribes
based in England developed in the eighth  and  ninth  centuries  in  figures
such as Offa and Alfred the Great, who began to create  centralised  systems
of government. Following the Norman Conquest, the  machinery  of  government
developed further,  producing  long-lived  national  institutions  including
   The Middle Ages saw several fierce contests for the Crown, culminating in
the Wars of the Roses, which lasted for nearly a century. The  conflict  was
finally ended with the advent of the  Tudors,  the  dynasty  which  produced
some  of  England's  most  successful  rulers  and  a  flourishing  cultural
Renaissance. The end of the Tudor line with the death of the 'Virgin  Queen'
in 1603 brought about the Union of the Crowns with Scotland.

                            THE ANGLO-SAXON KINGS
   In the Dark Ages during the fifth and  sixth  centuries,  communities  of
peoples in  Britain  inhabited  homelands  with  ill-defined  borders.  Such
communities were organised and led by chieftains  or  kings.  Following  the
final withdrawal of the Roman legions from the  provinces  of  Britannia  in
around 408 AD these small kingdoms were left to  preserve  their  own  order
and to deal with invaders and waves of migrant peoples  such  as  the  Picts
from beyond Hadrian's Wall, the Scots from Ireland and Germanic tribes  from
the continent. (King Arthur,  a  larger-than-life  figure,  has  often  been
cited as a leader of one or more  of  these  kingdoms  during  this  period,
although his name now tends to be used as a  symbol  of  British  resistance
against invasion.)
   The invading communities overwhelmed or  adapted  existing  kingdoms  and
created new ones - for example, the Angles in Mercia and  Northumbria.  Some
British kingdoms initially survived  the  onslaught,  such  as  Strathclyde,
which was wedged in the north  between  Pictland  and  the  new  Anglo-Saxon
kingdom of Northumbria.
   By 650 AD, the British Isles were a patchwork of  many  kingdoms  founded
from native or immigrant communities  and  led  by  powerful  chieftains  or
kings. In  their  personal  feuds  and  struggles  between  communities  for
control and supremacy, a small number of kingdoms became dominant:  Bernicia
and Deira (which merged to  form  Northumbria  in  651  AD),  Lindsey,  East
Anglia, Mercia, Wessex and Kent. Until the late seventh  century,  a  series
of warrior-kings in turn  established  their  own  personal  authority  over
other kings, usually won by force or through alliances  and  often  cemented
by dynastic marriages.
   According to the later chronicler Bede, the most famous  of  these  kings
was Ethelberht, king of Kent (reigned c.560-616), who  married  Bertha,  the
Christian daughter of the king of Paris, and who became  the  first  English
king to be converted to Christianity (St Augustine's mission from  the  Pope
to Britain in 597 during  Ethelberht's  reign  prompted  thousands  of  such
conversions). Ethelberht's law code was the  first  to  be  written  in  any
Germanic language and included 90 laws. His influence  extended  both  north
and south of the river Humber: his nephew became king  of  the  East  Saxons
and his daughter married king Edwin of Northumbria (died 633).
   In the eighth century, smaller kingdoms in the British Isles continued to
fall to more powerful kingdoms, which claimed rights over  whole  areas  and
established temporary primacies: Dalriada in Scotland,  Munster  and  Ulster
in Ireland. In England, Mercia and later Wessex  came  to  dominate,  giving
rise to the start of the monarchy.
   Throughout  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  the   succession   was   frequently
contested, by both the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and leaders of  the  settling
Scandinavian communities. The Scandinavian influence was to prove strong  in
the early years. It was the threat  of  invading  Vikings  which  galvanised
English leaders into  unifying  their  forces,  and,  centuries  later,  the
Normans who successfully invaded in 1066 were themselves the descendants  of
Scandinavian 'Northmen'.

                                                 HOUSE OF WESSEX AND ENGLAND
                                                                  802 – 1066

                           EGBERT   =    Redburga


                       ETHELWULF   =    Osburga dau. of Oslac of Isle of


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