Вы живете в:

Главная / Русские Рефераты / Иностранные языки / BRITISH EDUCATION

BRITISH EDUCATION - Иностранные языки


   British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of

   individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole.

   Compulsory schooling takes place between the agers of 5 and

   16, but some pupils remain at shool for 2 years more, to prepare

   for further higher education. Post shool education is organized

   flaxebly, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic

   and vacational education and to continue studying through out


   Administration of state schools is decentralised. The

   department of education and science is responsible for national

   education policy, but it doesn't run any schools, if doesn't

   employ teachers, or prescribe corricular or textbooks. All shools

   are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law

   only one subject is compulsary. That is religious instruction.

   Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in

   nursery schools or in infant's classes in primary schools.

   Most pupils receive free education finenst from public fonds

   and the small proportions attend schools wholy independent. Most

   independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing

   schools is growing.

   Education within the mantained schools system usually

   comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary

   schools are subdevided into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and

   junior schools (ages 7 - 11). Infant schools are informal and

   children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers

   and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their

   work with the same class teacher exept for PT and music. The work

   is beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.

   The junior stage extence over four years. Children have set

   pirits of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography

   nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were

   often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities.

   The most able children were put in the A stream, the list able in

   the D stream. Till reccantly most junior shool children had to

   seat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an

   arithmetic paper and an entelligent test.

   According to the results of the exam children are sent to

   Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools.

   So called comprehansive schools began to appear after World

   War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which can provide education

   for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given

   in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools.

   By the law all children must receive full-time education

   between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a

   school for a further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the

   sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually

   subdevided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The corricular is

   narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3.

   The main examinations for secondary school pupils are

   general certeficate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate

   of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at

   two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A


   Candidats set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years away. GCE

   level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE

   level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the

   pupils who are of everage abilities of their age.


   What I would like to become? This question pasels me

   greatly. Every job has its elements of difficulties and interest.

   I think that nearly all the professions are very important in

   life. But to choose the right occupation is very difficult,

   because we must take in to consideration many factors. We must

   consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. At the same

   time we must satisfy the requirements of our society and peoples

   needs in one profession or another.

   The end of school is the beginning of an independent life,

   the beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass

   that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will

   help us best to live and work. Each boy and girl has every

   opportunity to develop mind and use knowledge and education

   received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or

   works, others want to go into construction: to take part in

   building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work

   and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society

   and your own personal interest are offered in the sfere of the

   services transport, communications and many others.

   I have a specially liking for to became a programmist. I

   like this profession because it very interest.


   Speaking about art gallereys of London we should first of all

   mention The national gallery, The national portret galerey and

   The tate gallery. I would like to tell you about National portret

   gallery and about Tate gallery.

   The national gallery houses one of the richest and most

   extensive collections of painting in the world. It stands to the

   north of the Trafalgar Square. the gallerey was desighned by

   William Wilkins and build in 1834-37. The collection covers all

   schools and periods of painting, but is a specially famous for

   it's examples of Rembrant and Rubents. The british schools is

   only moderately represented as the national collections are

   shared with the Tate gallerey. The National gallerey was founded

   in 1824 when the government bought the collection of John

   Angerstein which included 38 paintings.

   The Tate gallery houses the national collection of british

   painting from the 16-th century to the present day. It is also

   the national gallerey for modern art, including painting and

   sculpture made in Britain, Europe, America and other countries.

   It was opened in 1897 as the national gallerey of british art. It

   owes it's establishment to Suie Henritate who built the gallerey

   and gave his own collection of 65 painting.


   Until reccently the history of the english theatre has been

   build around actors rather then companies. It has been hard to

   find any London theatre that even had a consistent policy. There

   are no permanent staff in British theatres. Apply is rehearsed

   for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly

   for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it draws

   the odious and pays it's way.

   Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is an

   follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked an

   advanced (bookable), and unbookable once have no numbers and the

   spectators occupy them on the principal: first come - first

   served. And ancient times plays were acted inside churches and

   later on the market places.

   The first theatre in England "The Blackfries" build in 1576,

   and "The Globe" build in 1599, which is closely connected with

   William Shakespeare. Speaking about our times we should first of

   all mention "The English National theatre","The Royal Shakespeare

   company" and "Covent Garden".

   "Covent Garden" used to be a fashionable promenade - it was,

   before then, a convent garden - but when it became overrun with

   flower-sellers, orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people

   moved to more exclusive surroundings farther west, such as "St.

   Jame's Square".

   The first "Covent Garden theatre" was build in 1732. It was

   burnt down in 1808 and rebuild exactly a year after. It opened in

   September 1809, with Shakespeare's "Macbeth". Since the middle of

   the last century "Covent Garden" became exclusively devoted to


   Now "Covent Garden" in busier than ever, it is one of the

   few well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it

   employs over 600 people both of the Opera company and the Royal


   THE NATIONAL THEATRE It took over the

   hundred years to establish a national

   theatre company. It's first director from 1962 was Lawrence

   Olivier. This is the first state theatre Britain has ever had. A

   special building for it was opened in 1976. It has three theatres

   in one: "The Oliver theatre", the biggest is for the main

   classical repertoire; "The Lyttilton", a bit smaller is for new

   writing and for visiting foreigh countries and "The Cottesloe

   theatre", the smallest is used for experimental writing and

   productions. "The Royal Shakespeare company" are devided between

   the country and the capital and it's produces plays mainly by

   Shakespeare and his contempraries when it performs is "Stratford

   -on-Avon", and modern plays in it's two auditoria in the Cities,

   Barbican centre.


   For decades Moscow has had a reputation as a city of

   theatres. The birth plays of the historic "Bolshoy", "Maly" and

   "Moscow Art" theatres the city has been and steel is a centre for

   the development exploretary modern ideas in the dramatic art and

   is famous for it's great number of highlygifted, interesting

   directors, actors, playwrigts and artists.

   Every evening the doors of Moscow theatres open to streams

   of theatre-gowers. The best Moscow theatres devoded themselves to

   developing the principals of directing and acting laid down by

   Stanislavsky, Meerhold, Nemerovich-Danchenko, Vachtangov and

   others. The discoveries and successes of Moscow theatres today

   exists due to experience and triumphs of preceding generations.

   I'd like to tell you about the Bolshoy Theatre. The magestic

   building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Theatre Square in

   Moscow's central quater, not far from Kremlin. This is the

   leading Russian opera house with the best vocalists and

   choreographers in it's company.

   The Bolshoi traces it's history to 1776 when a standing

   opera company was organized in Moscow. The first opera shown in

   Bolshoi theatre was opera "life of tsar" (now "Ivan Susanin").At

   later times operas by Dargomyzhsky, Serov, Tcaikovsky, Borodin,

   Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Rubinstein were produced here.

   At the same time the Bolshoi company staged the best operas

   and ballets by West European composers-Mozart, Rossini, Weber,

   Verdi and others.

   The bolshoi ballet company enjoys well-deserved fame as the

   world's finest. This is equally true of it's brilliant realistic

   style of perfomance and repertoire.


   One of my favorite artists is Rembrant is the greatest Dutch

   master, one of the supreme geneuses in the history of art. To

   this day the art of Rembrant remains one of the most profound

   witness of the progress of the soul in it's earthly pilgrimage

   towards the realisation of higher destiny. The son of the

   prosperous miller, Rembrant was born in Leiden in 1608. He

   studied at Leiden University, but his real vocation was painting.

   His rapid sugsess promoted him to move to the Amsterdam in 1631.

   In 1632 Rembrant bought a splendid house, started a collection

   of paintings and rarities. The universal artist dealt with many

   world subjects. Rembrant created a number of portraits and some

   group portraits which were traditional to the Dutch art. The best

   of them are "Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp" and "The night watch".

   In 1655 Rembrant found himself in the midst of several

   financial troubles. At that period he painted "The Polish Rider",

   which is an allegory of the man's earthly journey.

   Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrant

   painted his famous "Return of the Prological son", which stands

   at the ultimate peak of Cristian spirituality, illuminating the

   relationship of the self to the eternity.

   The biblical theme was very important to Rembrant. He painted

   "Artakserks, Oman and Eshpir", "The Saint Family".

   Rembrant was not understood when he was alive. He died in

   poverty. But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes

   Rembrant from his Dutch contemporaries making him the greatest

   artist of the world.


   Speaking about art gallereys of Moscow we must mention the

   most famous gallereys.

   The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best known picture

   gallereys in Russia. It takes it's name from it's founder Pavel

   Tretyakov, a Moscow mercant. In the 19'th century Tretyakov began

   to collect russian paintings. He visitet all the exibitions and

   art studios and bought the best pictures. Little by little

   Tretyakov extended his interests and began to collect earlier

   Russian paintings. In 1881 Tretyakov opened in St. Peterburg to

   the public, 11 years later he donated it to the city of Moscow.

   Since then the gallerey has received hundred paintings from oter

   museums and private collections. The Tretyakov gallerey reflects

   the whole history of Russian paintings from 11'th century to the

   present day.

   Also I'd like to tell you about state pushkin museum of fine

   art. The building was built in Greek stile by Roman Klein in 1898

   - 1912 to house a museum of fine art, founded of initiative of

   professor Ivan Cvetayev. Since 1937 it has be known as The Puskin

   museum of fine art. It has one of the worlds largest ancient

   collections of european art. Now the picture gallerey has over 2

   thousands works of various schools of painting which enaibous us

   to understand and appreciate the variaty of staills over the


   The Pushkin museum pereodically hald's exibition of the art

   of various countries and of individual outstanding artist of past

   and present.


   Theatres are very much the same in London as anywhere else;

   the chief theatres ,music halls and cinemas are in the West End.

   If you are staying in London for a few days, you'll have no

   difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable

   evening. You'll find opera, balley, comedy, drama, revue, musical

   comedy and variety. Films are shown in the cinemas during the

   greatest part of the day.

   The best seats at theatres are those in the stalls, the

   circle and the upper circle. Then comes the pit, and the last of

   all the gallery where the seats are cheapest. Boxes, of course,

   are the most expensive. Most theatres and music halls have good

   orchestras with popular conductors.

   You ought to make a point of going to the opera at least

   once during the season if you can. There you can get the best of

   everything - an exellent orchestras, famous conductors, celebated

   singers and well dressed audience. But, of course, if you are not

   fond of music and singing, won't interest you.

   At the West End theatres you can see most of the famous

   English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are

   magnificently staged - costumes, dresses, scenery, everything

   being done of the most lavish scale. Choose a good play, and

   you'll enjoy yourself thoroughly from the moment the curtain goes

   up to the end of the last act. Get your seats beforehand, either

   at the box-office of theatre itself or at one of the agencies.

   When you go to a theatre, you'll probably want to seat as near to

   the stage as possible. But if you are at the cinema, you may

   prefer to seat some distance from the screen. In fact, I would

   say, the further away the better.



Новые поступления

Украинский Зеленый Портал Рефератик создан с целью поуляризации украинской культуры и облегчения поиска учебных материалов для украинских школьников, а также студентов и аспирантов украинских ВУЗов. Все материалы, опубликованные на сайте взяты из открытых источников. Однако, следует помнить, что тексты, опубликованных работ в первую очередь принадлежат их авторам. Используя материалы, размещенные на сайте, пожалуйста, давайте ссылку на название публикации и ее автора.

© il.lusion,2007г.
Карта сайта
МЕТА - Украина. Рейтинг сайтов Союз образовательных сайтов