BRITISH EDUCATION - Иностранные языки
British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of
individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole.
Compulsory schooling takes place between the agers of 5 and
16, but some pupils remain at shool for 2 years more, to prepare
for further higher education. Post shool education is organized
flaxebly, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic
and vacational education and to continue studying through out
Administration of state schools is decentralised. The
department of education and science is responsible for national
education policy, but it doesn't run any schools, if doesn't
employ teachers, or prescribe corricular or textbooks. All shools
are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law
only one subject is compulsary. That is religious instruction.
Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in
nursery schools or in infant's classes in primary schools.
Most pupils receive free education finenst from public fonds
and the small proportions attend schools wholy independent. Most
independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing
schools is growing.
Education within the mantained schools system usually
comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary
schools are subdevided into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and
junior schools (ages 7 - 11). Infant schools are informal and
children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers
and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their
work with the same class teacher exept for PT and music. The work
is beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.
The junior stage extence over four years. Children have set
pirits of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography
nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were
often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities.
The most able children were put in the A stream, the list able in
the D stream. Till reccantly most junior shool children had to
seat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an
arithmetic paper and an entelligent test.
According to the results of the exam children are sent to
Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools.
So called comprehansive schools began to appear after World
War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which can provide education
for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given
in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools.
By the law all children must receive full-time education
between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a
school for a further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the
sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually
subdevided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The corricular is
narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3.
The main examinations for secondary school pupils are
general certeficate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate
of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at
two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A
Candidats set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years away. GCE
level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE
level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the
pupils who are of everage abilities of their age.
MY FUTURE PROFESSION
What I would like to become? This question pasels me
greatly. Every job has its elements of difficulties and interest.
I think that nearly all the professions are very important in
life. But to choose the right occupation is very difficult,
because we must take in to consideration many factors. We must
consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. At the same
time we must satisfy the requirements of our society and peoples
needs in one profession or another.
The end of school is the beginning of an independent life,
the beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass
that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will
help us best to live and work. Each boy and girl has every
opportunity to develop mind and use knowledge and education
received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or
works, others want to go into construction: to take part in
building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work
and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society
and your own personal interest are offered in the sfere of the
services transport, communications and many others.
I have a specially liking for to became a programmist. I
like this profession because it very interest.
ART GALLEREYS OF LONDON
Speaking about art gallereys of London we should first of all
mention The national gallery, The national portret galerey and
The tate gallery. I would like to tell you about National portret
gallery and about Tate gallery.
The national gallery houses one of the richest and most
extensive collections of painting in the world. It stands to the
north of the Trafalgar Square. the gallerey was desighned by
William Wilkins and build in 1834-37. The collection covers all
schools and periods of painting, but is a specially famous for
it's examples of Rembrant and Rubents. The british schools is
only moderately represented as the national collections are
shared with the Tate gallerey. The National gallerey was founded
in 1824 when the government bought the collection of John
Angerstein which included 38 paintings.
The Tate gallery houses the national collection of british
painting from the 16-th century to the present day. It is also
the national gallerey for modern art, including painting and
sculpture made in Britain, Europe, America and other countries.
It was opened in 1897 as the national gallerey of british art. It
owes it's establishment to Suie Henritate who built the gallerey
and gave his own collection of 65 painting.
Until reccently the history of the english theatre has been
build around actors rather then companies. It has been hard to
find any London theatre that even had a consistent policy. There
are no permanent staff in British theatres. Apply is rehearsed
for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly
for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it draws
the odious and pays it's way.
Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is an
follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked an
advanced (bookable), and unbookable once have no numbers and the
spectators occupy them on the principal: first come - first
served. And ancient times plays were acted inside churches and
later on the market places.
The first theatre in England "The Blackfries" build in 1576,
and "The Globe" build in 1599, which is closely connected with
William Shakespeare. Speaking about our times we should first of
all mention "The English National theatre","The Royal Shakespeare
company" and "Covent Garden".
"Covent Garden" used to be a fashionable promenade - it was,
before then, a convent garden - but when it became overrun with
flower-sellers, orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people
moved to more exclusive surroundings farther west, such as "St.
The first "Covent Garden theatre" was build in 1732. It was
burnt down in 1808 and rebuild exactly a year after. It opened in
September 1809, with Shakespeare's "Macbeth". Since the middle of
the last century "Covent Garden" became exclusively devoted to
Now "Covent Garden" in busier than ever, it is one of the
few well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it
employs over 600 people both of the Opera company and the Royal
THE NATIONAL THEATRE It took over the
hundred years to establish a national
theatre company. It's first director from 1962 was Lawrence
Olivier. This is the first state theatre Britain has ever had. A
special building for it was opened in 1976. It has three theatres
in one: "The Oliver theatre", the biggest is for the main
classical repertoire; "The Lyttilton", a bit smaller is for new
writing and for visiting foreigh countries and "The Cottesloe
theatre", the smallest is used for experimental writing and
productions. "The Royal Shakespeare company" are devided between
the country and the capital and it's produces plays mainly by
Shakespeare and his contempraries when it performs is "Stratford
-on-Avon", and modern plays in it's two auditoria in the Cities,
For decades Moscow has had a reputation as a city of
theatres. The birth plays of the historic "Bolshoy", "Maly" and
"Moscow Art" theatres the city has been and steel is a centre for
the development exploretary modern ideas in the dramatic art and
is famous for it's great number of highlygifted, interesting
directors, actors, playwrigts and artists.
Every evening the doors of Moscow theatres open to streams
of theatre-gowers. The best Moscow theatres devoded themselves to
developing the principals of directing and acting laid down by
Stanislavsky, Meerhold, Nemerovich-Danchenko, Vachtangov and
others. The discoveries and successes of Moscow theatres today
exists due to experience and triumphs of preceding generations.
I'd like to tell you about the Bolshoy Theatre. The magestic
building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Theatre Square in
Moscow's central quater, not far from Kremlin. This is the
leading Russian opera house with the best vocalists and
choreographers in it's company.
The Bolshoi traces it's history to 1776 when a standing
opera company was organized in Moscow. The first opera shown in
Bolshoi theatre was opera "life of tsar" (now "Ivan Susanin").At
later times operas by Dargomyzhsky, Serov, Tcaikovsky, Borodin,
Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Rubinstein were produced here.
At the same time the Bolshoi company staged the best operas
and ballets by West European composers-Mozart, Rossini, Weber,
Verdi and others.
The bolshoi ballet company enjoys well-deserved fame as the
world's finest. This is equally true of it's brilliant realistic
style of perfomance and repertoire.
MY FAVORITE PAINTER
One of my favorite artists is Rembrant is the greatest Dutch
master, one of the supreme geneuses in the history of art. To
this day the art of Rembrant remains one of the most profound
witness of the progress of the soul in it's earthly pilgrimage
towards the realisation of higher destiny. The son of the
prosperous miller, Rembrant was born in Leiden in 1608. He
studied at Leiden University, but his real vocation was painting.
His rapid sugsess promoted him to move to the Amsterdam in 1631.
In 1632 Rembrant bought a splendid house, started a collection
of paintings and rarities. The universal artist dealt with many
world subjects. Rembrant created a number of portraits and some
group portraits which were traditional to the Dutch art. The best
of them are "Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp" and "The night watch".
In 1655 Rembrant found himself in the midst of several
financial troubles. At that period he painted "The Polish Rider",
which is an allegory of the man's earthly journey.
Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrant
painted his famous "Return of the Prological son", which stands
at the ultimate peak of Cristian spirituality, illuminating the
relationship of the self to the eternity.
The biblical theme was very important to Rembrant. He painted
"Artakserks, Oman and Eshpir", "The Saint Family".
Rembrant was not understood when he was alive. He died in
poverty. But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes
Rembrant from his Dutch contemporaries making him the greatest
artist of the world.
ART IN MOSCOW
Speaking about art gallereys of Moscow we must mention the
most famous gallereys.
The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best known picture
gallereys in Russia. It takes it's name from it's founder Pavel
Tretyakov, a Moscow mercant. In the 19'th century Tretyakov began
to collect russian paintings. He visitet all the exibitions and
art studios and bought the best pictures. Little by little
Tretyakov extended his interests and began to collect earlier
Russian paintings. In 1881 Tretyakov opened in St. Peterburg to
the public, 11 years later he donated it to the city of Moscow.
Since then the gallerey has received hundred paintings from oter
museums and private collections. The Tretyakov gallerey reflects
the whole history of Russian paintings from 11'th century to the
Also I'd like to tell you about state pushkin museum of fine
art. The building was built in Greek stile by Roman Klein in 1898
- 1912 to house a museum of fine art, founded of initiative of
professor Ivan Cvetayev. Since 1937 it has be known as The Puskin
museum of fine art. It has one of the worlds largest ancient
collections of european art. Now the picture gallerey has over 2
thousands works of various schools of painting which enaibous us
to understand and appreciate the variaty of staills over the
The Pushkin museum pereodically hald's exibition of the art
of various countries and of individual outstanding artist of past
THEATRES, MUSIC HALLS AND CINEMAS
Theatres are very much the same in London as anywhere else;
the chief theatres ,music halls and cinemas are in the West End.
If you are staying in London for a few days, you'll have no
difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable
evening. You'll find opera, balley, comedy, drama, revue, musical
comedy and variety. Films are shown in the cinemas during the
greatest part of the day.
The best seats at theatres are those in the stalls, the
circle and the upper circle. Then comes the pit, and the last of
all the gallery where the seats are cheapest. Boxes, of course,
are the most expensive. Most theatres and music halls have good
orchestras with popular conductors.
You ought to make a point of going to the opera at least
once during the season if you can. There you can get the best of
everything - an exellent orchestras, famous conductors, celebated
singers and well dressed audience. But, of course, if you are not
fond of music and singing, won't interest you.
At the West End theatres you can see most of the famous
English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are
magnificently staged - costumes, dresses, scenery, everything
being done of the most lavish scale. Choose a good play, and
you'll enjoy yourself thoroughly from the moment the curtain goes
up to the end of the last act. Get your seats beforehand, either
at the box-office of theatre itself or at one of the agencies.
When you go to a theatre, you'll probably want to seat as near to
the stage as possible. But if you are at the cinema, you may
prefer to seat some distance from the screen. In fact, I would
say, the further away the better.